FoRAM Index in Manado Bay coral reef areas, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia

Exel V.Sumale and Jane M.Mamuaja and Markus T.Lasut and Hermanto W.K.Manengkey and Royke M.Rampengan and Jans D.Lalita (2022) FoRAM Index in Manado Bay coral reef areas, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Aquatic Science & Management, 10 (1): 5. pp. 30-34. ISSN 2337-4403

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Benthic foraminifera are protozoans that are readily preserved in marine sediments. The relative proportion of benthic foraminifera that harbor symbionts compared to the proportion that are opportunistic or small/heterotrophic can be used to indicate the quality of the aquatic environment for coral reefs via the FoRAM Index (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring). This study assesses the functional composition of benthic foraminifera in the waters of Manado Bay using the FoRAM Index. Sampling was carried out at 4 stations with 3 replicates each using SCUBA equipment at a depth of 3-6 meters. The 4,124 benthic foraminifera specimens collected were distributed over 37 genera and the FoRAM Index ranged from 1.90 to 9.12. The water conditions at three of the stations (Meras, Molas, and Malalayang) are very conducive to the growth of coral reefs, with FoRAM Index values ranging from 5.64 to 9.12, while at the Sario station the FoRAM Index value was only 1.90 to 2.04, indicating that this aquatic environment is unsuitable for the growth and development of coral reefs.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Benthic foraminifera, FoRAM Index, Manado Bay, Coral reef health, Coastal pollution
Subjects: Ocean Sciences & Technology > Biological Oceanography
Depositing User: Mrs. Sri Wulan
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2022 12:41
Last Modified: 03 Nov 2022 01:11

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